Signs and methods of treatment of osteochondrosis of the spine in the lumbar spine
Painful symptoms in the lumbar spine affect 80% of the world's population at different stages of life. Often these are manifestations of osteochondrosis. Doctors state the fact - the disease is no longer the lot of the elderly. Increasingly, symptoms of the disease appear in persons under the age of 30. Without treatment, osteochondrosis leads to complete immobilization of the lumbar spine and subsequent disability of the patient.
What is osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine
The diagnosis implies the course of degenerative processes in the cartilaginous tissue of which the intervertebral joints are composed. Osteochondrosis in the lower back is characterized by changes in the joints and vertebrae in the lumbar region.
Osteochondrosis is a gradual degeneration of cartilaginous tissue into bone.
Often, osteochondrosis ends with the formation of an intervertebral hernia, which is a source of constant back pain in the patient. Osteochondrosis of POP causes pinching of nerves, as well as blood vessels, causing a violation of the trophism of tissues of internal organs, which is fraught with the appearance of symptoms of functional disorders in the body.
Causes of lower back disease
Osteochondrosis of the spine belongs to a number of diseases, the exact causes of which have not yet been established. It is known that the defeat of the spine is preceded by metabolic disorders, which can lead to a huge number of unfavorable factors. The most common examples are:
- Severe lack of movement.
- Failures of electrolyte metabolism. The trophism of the intervertebral joints is disturbed due to chronic diseases.
- Congenital or acquired disorders of the ODA.
- Excessive physical activity is the most common cause.
- Wrong way of life. Abuse of salt, fried, fatty, smoked foods leads to degenerative changes in the intervertebral joints.
With osteochondrosis, the back muscles gradually atrophy, the patient begins to slouch.
Doctors note a hereditary predisposition to the development of the disease. Also, the provoking factors include the lack of treatment for curvature of the spine - lordosis, scoliosis, kyphosis.
Signs of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine are characterized by the appearance of various symptoms, as well as the development of three pathological syndromes: radicular, ischemic, vertebral.
Pain symptom may appear:
- Lumbodynia- aching low back pain. The symptom almost completely disappears when the body is placed in a horizontal position.
- Lumbago- lightning pain. The symptom is characterized by the ability to radiate.
- Lumboischialgia- low back pain spreading to the buttocks and legs. The symptom is accompanied by loss of sensitivity of superficial tissues.
Back pain is compared to an electric shock, and the patient freezes in a position in which there is no pain.
Signs of lumbar osteochondrosis include symptoms of specific syndromes:
- Radicular symptoms include boring pain in the area innervated by the pinched nerve. In this case, the epicenter of painful symptoms is observed in the limbs, buttocks, thighs, and lower abdomen.
- Symptoms of ischemic syndrome are associated with impaired blood circulation, lack of nutrients in some tissues.
- Symptoms of the vertebral syndrome include muscle atrophy, displacement of the vertebrae, and a change in the position of the pelvis, which leads to obvious changes in the patient's gait and movement.
When lifting weights, nerve roots and blood vessels are compressed and pain in the nerve zone begins to disturb.
Differences from other ailments by signs
Dystrophic lesions of the lumbar vertebrae are accompanied by a number of symptoms characteristic only of this disease:
- Constant coldness of the skin of the buttocks and thighs.
- Decreased libido, impotence.
- Creepy feeling on inner thighs and buttocks.
- Increased dryness of the skin on the lower back and buttocks, accompanied by flaking.
- Constipation tendency.
- Urinary incontinence.
- A burning sensation in the sacrum.
Even complete coincidence of the manifestations of the disease with the described symptoms requires diagnostic studies to confirm the diagnosis (MRI, radiography, computed tomography).
Determination of stage and type
Intervertebral osteochondrosis can be acute or chronic. Very often, the transition of the disease to a sluggish form is observed, since it is difficult to completely cure the disease. Chronic osteochondrosis is characterized by the regular occurrence of relapses - they complicate the patient's life during the off-season.
Local degenerative changes are rare. Often, the destruction of the lumbar vertebrae accompanies widespread osteochondrosis, which affects several parts of the spine at once. The disease is characterized by the extensiveness of painful sensations and obvious disorders of the patient's mobility.
There are 4 degrees of osteochondrosis:
- Initial changes.The nucleus pulposus moves within the disk. Symptoms - lumbago may occur in the affected area.
- Lesion of the annulus fibrosus.Multiple cracks are formed on it, there is an increase in the mobility of the vertebrae and hypertonicity of the nearby muscles.
- Rupture of the annulus fibrosus.Accompanied by severe soreness of the department, the formation of hernias, radicular syndrome.
- Deformity of the spinal column.It is accompanied by the displacement of the vertebrae, as well as the growth of the bone tissue of the spine, which leads to immobilization of the patient.
The stage of development of the disease is determined by the vertebrologist using palpation and diagnostic measures.
How is osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine treated?
Treatment of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine depends on the degree of the changes that have taken place. A prerequisite is the timely adoption of measures, an examination and the choice of treatment tactics so as not to start the disease. In the later stages of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, only surgical treatment of the spine (vertebroplasty) is effective.
It is very important to consult a doctor in time for treatment, since in the later stages of osteochondrosis only surgical treatment of the spine is effective.
Treatment of lumbar osteochondrosis has the main goals:
- Elimination of the cause of dystrophic processes.
- Removal of disease symptoms.
- Activation of restoration of intervertebral joints.
- Strengthening the muscular system.
To achieve the goals, a set of measures is used, including exercise therapy, physiotherapy, diet, drug treatment, massage. An important condition is regularity. Methods for treating osteochondrosis may include fixing the affected back with braces. Kinesio taping will help to get rid of osteochondrosis and prevent its recurrence.
Therapeutic fasting is carried out in consultation with the doctor. As a rule, it is enough to adhere to the principles of a healthy diet, minimize salt intake, and normalize the drinking regime.
In severe osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, bed rest may be required at the beginning of treatment. After the elimination of severe pain, the patient must get up, perform basic physical exercises.
For osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, doctors supplement the treatment regimen with physiotherapeutic procedures:
It is important to observe the regularity of procedures for osteochondrosis, as well as to undergo a full course of treatment.
In osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, as in other localizations of the disease, it is recommended to increase physical activity by performing exercises recommended by an orthopedic doctor.
Will the belt help
It is worth choosing a belt for the lower back in case of osteochondrosis only together with the attending physician. There are bandages, corsets, heating and neoprene belts, which have different indications and contraindications for their use.
Wearing a corset and bandage is one of the main auxiliary methods of restoring the joints of the spine. A hard belt for osteochondrosis fixes the lumbar spine in a certain position, relieves stress on muscles and joints. The warming belt for osteochondrosis can be used independently to eliminate pain and prevent relapse of the disease. The dog's belt protects the lower back well from drafts, relaxes the muscles.
In case of serious injuries, only a doctor chooses a belt for the treatment of osteochondrosis. As a rule, these are reinforced rigid corsets that provide immobility of the lumbar and sacral spine.
For lumbar osteochondrosis, a course of therapeutic massage is shown, aimed at normalizing trophism of the lumbar joints and bringing the muscles back to normal. The massage must be performed by a specialist. A contraindication for osteochondrosis for massage is an intervertebral hernia. Manipulations involving strong mechanical impact (use of plastic devices and vibrating massagers) are prohibited.
Exercises for the lumbar spine within the framework of exercise therapy for osteochondrosis should be selected by an orthopedist. General rules for exercise therapy:
- Static exercises predominate.
- Lack of sudden movements during execution.
- Moderation of physical activity.
- Sparing techniques that exclude the destruction of the vertebrae.
Exercise regularity is important. Exercises for osteochondrosis are included in the morning exercise program, performed daily.
The duration of the course of treatment for osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, as well as the list of medications, are determined by the doctor.
In the first days of therapy, the following are prescribed:
- NSAID injections.
- Injections of B vitamins
- Injections of chondroprotectors.
- Injections of muscle relaxants.
- External NSAIDs.
After the elimination of severe pain and acute inflammation, the patient is transferred to tablet forms of drugs. The first two weeks continue treatment with NSAIDs. The use of chondroprotectors implies long-term complex treatment with a combination of internal and external dosage forms.
If a disease of the lumbar spine is detected in the early stages, medications from the group of chondroprotectors are prescribed. The minimum duration of their admission is 3 months. In the absence of pronounced painful symptoms, the internal use of NSAIDs is replaced with external anesthetic drugs to reduce the negative effect of pharmacological agents on the gastric mucosa.
In case of severe pain syndrome, blockades are performed - the introduction of analgesics into the affected area of the lumbar region.
Symptoms of advanced lumbar osteochondrosis can ruin a person's life. For successful treatment of the disease, you should consult a doctor at the first signs of the disease - low back pain of mild severity. Timely complex therapy can prevent irreversible changes in the lumbar spine.